Published Papers

Changes in Social Network Structure in Response to Formal Credit Markets 
forthcoming, Review of Economic Studies 
with Abhijit Banerjee, Emily Breza, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Matthew O. Jackson and Cynthia Kinnan

Small mobile conditional cash transfers (mCCTs) of different amounts, schedules and design to improve routine childhood immunization coverage and timeliness of children aged 0-23 months in Pakistan: An open label multi-arm randomized controlled trial
eClinicalMedicine, June 2022

End Covid in low- and middle-income countries
with Mushfiq Mobarak, Edward Miguel, Jason Abaluck, A. Ahuja, Marcella Alsan, Abhijit Banerjee, Arun Chandrasekhar, Esther Duflo, J. Dzansi, D. Garrett, and others. Science 375 (6585): 1195-1110, March 10, 2022

Development Economics, in "The Future of Human Behaviour Research"
Nature Human Behaviour, January 2022

Long-term Effects of the Targeting the Ultra Poor Program
American Economic Review: Insights, December 2021
with Abhijit Banerjee and Garima Sharma

Effects of a large-scale social media advertising campaign on holiday travel and COVID-19 infections: a cluster randomized controlled trial
August 2021, Nature Medicine
with Emily Breza, Fatima Cody Stanford, Marcella Alsan, Burak Alsan, Abhijit Banerjee, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Sarah Eichmeyer, Traci Glushko, Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham, Kelly Holland, Emily Hoppe, Mohit Karnani, Sarah Liegl, Tristan Loisel, Lucy Ogbu-Nwobodo, Benjamin A. Olken, Carlos Torres, Pierre-Luc Vautrey, Erica T. Warner, and Susan Wootton 

Effect of Physician-Delivered COVID-19 Public Health Messages and Messages Acknowledging Racial Inequity on Black and White Adults’ Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices Related to COVID-19
with Carlos Torres, Lucy Ogbu-Nwobodo, Marcella Alsan, Fatima Cody Stanford, Abhijit Banerjee, Emily Breza, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Sarah Eichmeyer, Mohit Karnani, Tristan Loisel, Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham, Benjamin A. Olken, Pierre-Luc Vautrey, and Erica Warner
JAMA Network Open, July 2021

Improving Police Performance in Rajasthan, India: Experimental Evidence on Incentives, Managerial Autonomy and Training
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, February 2021
with Abhijit Banerjee, Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Daniel Keniston, Nina Singh


Comparison of Knowledge and Information-Seeking Behavior After General COVID-19 Public Health Messages and Messages Tailored for Black and Latinx Communities
with Abhijit Banerjee, Marcella Alsan, Fatima Cody Stanford, Emily Breza, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Sarah Eichmeyer, Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham, Lucy Ogbu-Nwobodo, Benjamin A. Olken, Carlos Torres, Anirudh Sankar, Pierre-Luc Vautrey.
Annals of Internal Medicine, December 2020

E-Governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, October 2020
with Abhijit Banerjee, Clement Imbert, Santhosh Mathew and Rohini Pande

Field Experiments and the Practice of Policy
American Economic Review, July 2020

On the Road: Access to transportation infrastructure and economic growth in China
Journal of Development Economics, Volume 145. June 2020
with Abhijit Banerjee and Nancy Qian

The influence of randomized controlled trials on development economics research and development policy
The State of Economics, The State of the World2019, edited by Kaushik Basu, David Rosenblatt and Claudia Sepulveda, MIT Press
with Abhijit Banerjee and Michael Kremer

HIV Prevention Among Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV and Male Condom Distribution in Rural Kenya
Plos ONE, July 2019 
with Pascaline Dupas, Thomas Ginn, Grace Makana Barasa, Moses Baraza, Victor Pouliquen and Vandana Sharma


Using Gossips to Spread Information: Theory and Evidence from Two Randomized Controlled Trials
The Review of Economic Studies, February 2019
with Abhijit Banerjee, Arun G. Chandrasekhar and Matthew O. Jackson

The Value of Regulatory Discretion: Estimates from Environmental Inspections in India
Econometrica, November 2018
with Michael Greenstone, Rohini Pande and Nicholas Ryan

How Much Do Existing Borrowers Value Microfinance? Evidence from an Experiment on Bundling Microcredit and Insurance
Economica, Volume 85, Issue 340, October 2018
with Abhijit Banerjee and Richard Hornbeck


Can Iron Fortified Salt Control Anemia? Evidence from Two Experiments in Rural Bihar
Journal of Development Economics, Volume 133, July 2018.
with Abhijit Banerjee and Sharon Barnhardt

Double/Debiased Machine Learning for Treatment and Structural Parameters
The Econometrics Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 1, February 2018
with Victor Chernozhukov, Denis Chetverikov, Mert Demirer, Christian Hansen, Whitney Newey and James Robins

NAITRE study on the impact of conditional cash transfer on poor pregnancy outcomes in underprivileged women: protocol for a nationwide pragmatic cluster-randomised superiority clinical trial in France
BMJ Open, 2017.
with Marc Bardou, Bruno Crépon, Anne-Claire Bertaux, Aurélie Godard-Marceaux, Astrid Eckman-Lacroix, Elise Thellier, Frédérique Falchier, Philippe Deruelle, Muriel Doret, Xavier Carcopino-Tusol, Thomas Schmitz, Thiphaine Barjat, Mathieu Morin, Franck Perrotin, Ghada Hatem, Catherine Deneux-Tharaux, Isabelle Fournel, Laurent Laforet, Nicolas Meunier-Beillard, and Isabelle Le Ray

From Proof of Concept to Scalable Policies: Challenges and Solutions, with an Application
Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 31, Number 4, fall 2017 
with Abhijit Banerjee, Rukmini Banerji, James Berry, Harini Kannan, Shobhini Mukherji, Marc Shotland and Michael Walton

Longer version of the paper on Pratham

Cognitive Science in the field: A preschool intervention durably enhances intuitive but not formal mathematics
Science, July 7, 2017, Vol.357
with Moira R. Dillon, Harini Kannan, Joshua T. Dean, and Elizabeth S. Spelke

Full Text
E-Letter Response

Double/Debiased/Neyman Machine Learning of Treatment Effects
American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings107(5): 261-65. May 2017.
with Victor Chernozhukov, Denis Chetverikov, Mert Demirer, Christian Hansen, and Whitney Newey


Richard T. Ely Lecture: The Economist as Plumber
American Economic Review, Vol. 107, No. 5, May 2017
based on the Richard T. Ely Lecture presented at the 2017 ASSA meeting

Education, HIV and Early Fertility: Experimental Evidence from Kenya
American Economic Review Vol. 105(9), pp. 2257-97, September 2015
with Pascaline Dupas, Michael Kremer


Turning a Shove into a Nudge? A "Labeled Cash Transfer" for Education
AEJ: Economic Policy 7(3), pp. 86-125, August 2015                
with Najy Benhassine, Florencia Devoto, Pascaline Dupas and Victor Pouliquen


A Multi-faceted Program Causes Lasting Progress for the Very Poor: Evidence from Six Countries, May 2015. Science, 348(6236), pp. 772, joint with Abhijit Banerjee,  Nathanael Goldberg, Dean Karlan, Robert Osei, William Parienté, Jeremy Shapiro, Bram Thuysbaert, and Christopher Udry.

School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil-Teacher Ratios: Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools
Journal of Public EconomicsVol. 123, pp. 92-110, March 2015
with Pascaline Dupas and Michael Kremer


The Miracle of Microfinance?: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Vol 7, No. 1, January 2015
with Abhijit Banerjee, Rachel Glennerster and Cynthia Kinnan


Estimating the impact of microcredit on those who take it up: Evidence from a randomized experiment in Morocco
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Vol. 7, No. 1, January 2015
with Bruno Crepon, Florencia Devoto, William Pariente

Under the Thumb of History? Political Institutions and the Scope for Action
Annual Review of Economics, Vol. 6, August 2014
with Abhijit Banerjee

(Dis)organization and success in an economics MOOC
American Economic Review, Vol 104, No.5, May 2014
with Abhijit Banerjee

Bundling Health Insurance and Microfinance in India: There Cannot be Adverse Selection if There is No Demand
 American Economic Review: Papers and Proceeding 2014, May 2014
with Abhijit Banerjee and Richard Hornbeck


Do Firms Want to Borrow More:Testing Credit Constraints Using a Targeted Lending Program
The Review of Economic Studies, April 2014
with Abhijit Banerjee

Truth-telling by Third-party Auditors and the Response of Polluting Firms: Experimental Evidence from India
Quarterly Journal of Economics, October 2013
with Michael Greenstone, Rohini Pande and Nicholas Ryan

The Diffusion of Microfinance
Science MagazineVol. 341, no. 6144, July 2013
with Abhijit Banerjee, Arun G. Chandrasekhar and Matthew O. Jackson
Full Text


Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India
American Economic Journal: Microeconomics 2013, May 2013
with Abhijit Banerjee, Maitreesh Ghatak and Jeanne Lafortune

What Does Reputation Buy? Differentiation in a Market for Third-Party Auditors
American Economic ReviewVol.103 (3), May 2013
with Rohini Pande, Michael Greenstone and Nicholas Ryan

Do labor market policies have displacement effects? Evidence from a clustered randomized experiment
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 128 (2), January 2013
with Bruno Crepon, Marc Gurgand, Roland Rathelot and Philippe Zamora

Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Inform Policy in Developing Countries
"Education Policy in Developing Countries", editor Paul Glewwe, University of Chicago Press, 2013
with Iqbal Dhaliwal, Rachel Glennerster and Caitlin Tulloch

Women Empowerment and Economic Development
Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 50, No. 4, December 2012

Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, Vol.4 No. 4, November 2012
with Florencia Devoto, Pascaline Dupas, William Pariente and Vincent Pons


Incentives Work: Getting Teachers to Come to School
American Economic Review, June 2012
with Rema Hanna and Stephen Ryan


Human values and the design of the fight against poverty
The Tanner Lectures on Human Values
Harvard University, May 2012

Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India
January 2012, Science Magazine
with Lori Beaman, Rohini Pande and Petia Topalova


Is Decentralized Iron Fortification a Feasible Option to Fight Anemia Among the Poorest?
Chapter in "Explorations in the Economics of Aging", 2011, David A. Wise (ed.), University of Chicago Press
with Abhijit Banerjee and Rachel Glennerster

Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya
American Economic Review, 101 (6), October 2011
with Michael Kremer, Jonathan Robinson


Peer Effects, Teacher Incentives, and the Impact of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya
American Economic Review,101(5), August 2011.
with Pascaline Dupas and Michael Kremer

Web Appendix

Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, February 2011
with Alix Zwane, Jonathan Zinman, Eric Van Dusen, William Pariente, Clair Null, Edward Miguel, Michael Kremer, Dean Karlan, Richard Hornbeck, Xavier Giné, Florencia Devoto, Bruno Crepon and Abhijit Banerjee

Long Run Impacts of Income Shocks: Wine and Phylloxera in 19th Century France
The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 92 (4), November 2010
with Abhijit Banerjee, Gilles Postel-Vinay and Tim Watts

Improving Immunization Coverage in Rural India: A Clustered Randomized Controlled Evaluation of Immunization Campaigns with and without Incentives
British Medical JournalMay 2010
with Abhijit Banerjee, Rachel Glennerster and Dhruva Kothari


Giving Credit Where it is Due
Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 24(3), Summer 2010
with Abhijit Banerjee

Pitfalls of Participatory Programs: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Education In India
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, Vol. 2 (1), February 2010
wtih Abhijit Banerjee, Rukmini Banerji, Rachel Glennerster, Stuti Khemani


Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?
Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 124(4), November 2009
with Lori Beaman, Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Rohini Pande and Petia Topolova

The Experimental Approach to Development Economics
Annual Review of Economics, Vol. 1, September 2009
with Abhijit Banerjee

Cooking Stoves, Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Rural Orissa
Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLIII, No. 32, August 2009
with Michael Greenstone and Rema Hanna

What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?
Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol 22, No.2, Spring 2008
with Abhijit Banerjee

Mandated Empowerment: Handing Antipoverty Policy Back to the Poor?
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1136, Reducing the Impact of Poverty on Health and Human Development: Scientific Approaches, pages 333–341, June 2008
with Abhijit Banerjee

How High are Rates of Return to Fertilizer? Evidence from Field Experiments in Kenya
American Economics Review, Vol. 98 (2), May 2008
with Michael Kremer and Jonathan Robinson

Use of Randomization in the Evaluation of Development Effectiveness
with Michael Kremer

Indoor Air Pollution, Health and Economic Well-being
Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society, Issue 1: 1-9, February 2008
with Michael Greenstone, Rema Hanna

Putting a Band Aid on a Corpse: Incentives for Nurses in the Indian Public Health Care System
Journal of the European Economic Association, Vol. 6(2-3), pp. 487-500, 2007
with Abhijit Banerjee and Rachel Glennerster

The Economic Lives of the Poor
Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(1): 141-167, Winter 2007
with Abhijit Banerjee

Updated Table (March 17, 2008) for Economic Lives of the Poor and What is Middle Class About the Middle Classes Around the World?-- in Excel

Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(2):601-646, 2007
with Rohini Pande


Remedying Education: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments in India
Quarterly Journal of Economics, August 2007
with Abhijit Banerjee, Shawn Cole and Leigh Linden


Saving Incentives for Low- and Middle-Income Families: Evidence from a Field Experiment with H&R Block
Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 2006
with William Gale, Jeffrey Liebman, Peter Orszag and Emmanuel Saez

Addressing Absence
Journal of Economic Perspectives, May 2005
with Abhijit Banerjee

Why Political Reservations
Journal of the European Economic Association, April-May 2005


Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India
Econometrica, September 2004
with Raghabendra Chattopadhyay

Erratum for Proposition 1

The Medium Run Effects of Educational Expansion: Evidence from a Large School Construction Program in Indonesia
Journal of Development Economics, 2004
Esther Duflo

How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?
Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2004
with Sendhil Mullainathan and Marianne Bertrand

Health Care Delivery in Rural Rajasthan
Economic and Political Weekly, 2004
with Abhjit Banerjee and Angus Deaton

The Impact of Reservation in the Panchayati Raj: Evidence from a Nationwide Randomized Experiment
Economic and Political Weekly, 2004
wtih Raghabendra Chattopadhyay

Wealth, health, and health services in rural Rajasthan
AER Papers and Proceedings, 2004
with Abhijit Banerjee and Angus Deaton


The Role of Information and Social Interactions in Retirement Plan Decisions: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment
Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2003
with Emmanuel Saez

Inequality and Growth: What Can the Data Say?
Journal of Economic Growth, 2003
with Abhijit Banerjee

Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old Age Pension and Intra-household Allocation in South Africa
World Bank Economic Review, 2003

The (Mis)allocation of Capital
Journal of the European Economic Association, 2003
with Abhijit V. Banerjee and Kaivan Munshi

Participation and Investment Decisions in a Retirement Plan: The Influence of Colleagues' Choices
Journal of Public Economics, 2002
with Emmanuel Saez

Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment
American Economic Review, 2001

Reputation Effects and the Limits of Contracting: A Study of the Indian Software Industry
Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2000
with Abhijit Banerjee


Indian Software Industry Questionnaire
Esther Duflo

Child Health and Household Resources in South Africa: Evidence from the Old Age Pension Program
American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 2000